Hannah & Peninnah Bible Study-1 Samuel 1: 1-28

I decided to share my Bible study notes for those interested in more about Hannah & Peninnah.

1 Samuel 1: 1-28
Main Characters in this chapter:
Elkanah-Means “God has created” Hannah-Means “Grace, gracious, or favor”
Peninnah-Means “Pearl or precious gem” Samuel-Means “name of God or the Hebrew word it is similar to translates to “heard of God”

Break down of verses 1-6

Vs. 1-Introduces Elkanah; Hannah’s husband

Vs. 2-Introduces Elkanah’s wives: Hannah & Peninnah. This verse also informs the reader that Peninnah had children while Hannah was barren.

For a Hebrew wife or concubine to be barren was viewed as outsiders as disobedience to God, and the consequence was very public. People on the outside NEVER REALLY know what is going on.

*Hannah’s name means grace, however it was a disgrace in the inability of a woman to conceive a child carried serious religious overtones with it. Even if it was acknowledge that she may possibly have a health issue then it was still seen as a form of disobedience by the barren woman.

People automatically assumed that a barren woman was disobedient in some area of her life, which as a result caused God to close her womb. The closing of her womb then lead to another disobedience of the woman not bringing new life into the world; because she was not being fruitful and multiplying (Genesis 1:28)

Vs. 3-The Lord of Hosts; emphasizes God’s complete sovereignty over everything and everyone, ALL OF CREATION

Vs. 4- Elkanah gives to Peninnah HER portion-(No more or no less, just what was hers.)

Vs. 5-A Double Portion throughout Bible a double portion is a sign of favor and honor.
Not only did Hannah get what was hers but she got some more, Elkanah favored Hannah although she had not given him any children. A clear sign he loved her more, which is also part of the reason Peninnah taunted her.

The Lord closed her womb: This reminds us that God did this, no one but Him. Remember God allows things/obstacles and we cannot blame the devil for everything. Note: God also did the same thing with Sarah (Genesis 16:2)

Vs. 6- Her Rival-scripture makes it very clear they were not friends, further more polygamy although practiced was not of God and only brought about problems and issues.

Provoked Her- To be provoked is not always a bad thing, provoking can push us into our next level.

Break down of verses 7-16

Vs. 7-Went up to house of Lord- Elkanah was a Godly man because the law only require that he go to the house of the Lord 3 times a year. However he took his whole family and also presented offerings on each family member’s behalf. He modeled the ways of the Lord to his family not just told them about it

Year after Year-We will continue to be sick and tired and going through the same non-sense until we get tired of going through it!

Vs.8-Why do you weep- Elkanah had NO clue Hannah’s pain; he loved her and provided for her and that is all he understood. The scripture proves there comes a point where what you will need only God can provide. No matter how much they love you or how much you love them there are some needs only God can meet.

Vs. 10-Weeped bitterly-Her pain and hurt had turned to bitterness. It is one thing to be burden it is a completely different to be bitter. One can conclude that Peninnah’s taunting had a great deal to do with this bitterness. We must be careful when we are bitter because bitterness produces the sin of unforgiveness. Bitterness can cause us to miss the grace of God! (Hebrews 12:15).

Vs. 11-She made a Vow- The vows and promises you make to God are serious, do NOT play with them. God takes the vows we make to Him and before Him seriously.

No razor shall come upon his head-We can see two things here. Hannah prayed for a son and was confident she would get a son, since she referred to the child as “him.” Are we this confident in our prayer lives?

Vs. 12-She made a Vow- The vow is the vow a Nazirite took, however a Nazirite made the vows voluntarily themselves as young men, she was making the vow for her unborn son. The vow was also only for a limited time she vowed her son’s whole life to this commitment.

A Nazirite did not cut his hair, drink wine, and avoided contact with dead bodies. At this moment Hannah also gave up all motherly rights and dedicated her son fully to the Lord’s service.

Vs. 13-Hannah was praying in her heart-God does not need the words to be verbal in order for Him to hear and respond.

Eli thought she was drunk-Eli was so use to the sin and the immortality his sons displayed in the temple with women he automatically assumed that Hannah had to be drunk.

SIDE NOTE: Church people’s assumptions are often the worse assumptions. However don’t get church people confused with God’s people

Hannah’s heart was dedicated and in sync with God but because Eli’s heart was not dedicated to God he assumed the worse.

Vs. 15-I am a woman who is deeply troubled; I was pouring out my soul to the Lord-Hannah had to defend her private prayers to the man of God. This is sad when Eli, the person who is suppose to intercede on the people of God and defend them is who she had to
defend herself to.

Vs.16-Out of my great anguish and grief-Hannah did what we all need to do when a burden is too heavy to bear, she took it to God.

Break down of verses 17-28

Vs. 17-“Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant you what you have asked of him.”- Once Eli understood he was in agreement. This shows the connection the man of God should have but more importantly shows that where 2 or 3 agree, there is God. (Matthew 18:20)

Vs. 18-Her face was no longer sad-As soon as she gave it to God she left in peace, this demonstrates Hannah’s level of faith. She accepted the blessing that Eli gave her as a promise from the Lord.

Vs. 19- Elkanah made love to his wife Hannah, and the LORD remembered her.-This leads you to believe that immediately she conceived. The God remembered her is more a reminder for us that God never forgets.

V.20- She named him Samuel, saying, “Because I asked the LORD for him.”- Samuel was born and his name displays that there was no doubt in Hannah’s mind he was a gift from God.

V.21-And his vow-Although Elkanah had the ability to override the vow Hannah made before the Lord he did not, he instead supported the vow and made it his own.

V.23-After the boy is weaned-during this time the child was breastfeed until they were about 2-3, it is assumed Samuel went to the temple at 3 years of age.

V.28- So now I give him to the LORD.-Hannah kept her word. She was partially obedient but fully obedient. She gave her only son to a lifelong service in the temple with no expectation to ever receive him back.
In ALL your getting, get understanding!
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